1. What is Nanobody?

Nanobody was first proposed and reported in Nature by Belgian scientists in 1993. The traditional antibody molecule (IgG) is composed of two identical heavy chains and light chains. The light chain of antibody molecule contains one VL region and one CL region, while the heavy chain has one VH region and three CH regions (CH1, CH2 and CH3).

Alpaca only has heavy chain antibody but lacks light chain, which is composed of four HC’s and two VH’s. Among them, VHH region is also called nanobodies or single domain antibody (sdAb) and Nanobody (Nb). It’s crystal is 2.5nm, 4nm in length and only 15KDa in molecular weight. Nano-antibodies are mainly used in biomedical research and development (genetic engineering drug research and development, ADC drug research and development); Used for clinical diagnosis in vitro (colloidal gold method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, electrochemiluminescence method); It is used in basic research fields such as tumor research and immunology. At present, the development of CAR-T therapeutic antibody has attracted more and more researchers’ attention.

Fig. 1. The structure of Nanobody

2. Advantages of Nanobody

(1) stability at high temperature and pH;

(2)VHH can recognize antigen sites that are not usually recognized by conventional antibodies;

(3) Their small molecular fragments are helpful for rapid tissue penetration and labeling applications, including crossing the blood-brain barrier;

(4) Cost-saving substitutes for mass production.

3. Application of Nanobody (VHH antibody)

Based on the special structure and properties of Nanobody, it is favored by people in the field of CAR-T therapeutic antibody development.

CAR-T therapy is a new type of targeted therapy for tumor, that is, chimeric antigen receptor T cell immunotherapy. By means of genetic engineering technology, activated T cells are equipped with a positioning navigation device CAR (tumor chimeric antigen receptor) to turn T cells into “super soldiers”, that is, CAR-T cells. With its positioning navigation device CAR, tumor cells in vivo can be accurately and specifically identified and eliminated.

KMD Bioscience can provide a variety of camel-derived Nanobody development services, including alpacas, llamas, camelus, etc. Based on the phage display technology platform, KMD Bioscience can provide major experimental links including antigen design, alpaca immunity, library construction and screening, and activity function identification, and provide alpaca VHH antibodies with high specificity and high affinity for scientists around the world.

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